Creating Autonomous Vehicle System
Path planning

We are at the beginning of an autonomous vehicle future. What is the landscape? How is it going to unfold? To help us foresee, let’s consult history. Industrial efficiency significantly enhanced by microprocessor technology. Access to it was in limit to the general public. This article is on Creating Autonomous Vehicle System. The second layer was in the 1980s, using the Graphical User Interface (GUI), with the Xerox Alto, Apple Lisa, and later MS Windows, and the idea of getting a “personal” computer became a possibility.

When Fairchild Semiconductors and Intel laid the groundwork by manufacturing silicon microprocessors, information technology took off (hence Silicon Valley).

Beginning in 2004 in Creating Autonomous Vehicle System

The fourth layer of information technology was laid down by social networking sites. That began with Facebook in 2004, enabling people to communicate directly with each other, essentially transferring human society to the World Wide Web.

What is the Future of Autonomous Vehicles?

The advent of Airbnb in 2008, followed by Uber in 2009, and others, laid the fifth layer by offering direct internet commerce services as the population of Internet-savvy people reached a large size.

With its added refinements, each new layer of information technology has enhanced common access and demand. Notice that humans provide the services for most Internet shopping sites, where they provide access to service providers via the Internet.

Creating Autonomous Vehicle System
Creating Autonomous Vehicle System

Introduction to the technology in Creating the Autonomous Vehicle System 

A complex framework consisting of three main subsystems is autonomous driving technology:

  • Algorithms, including sensing, perception, and decision.
  • Customer, including the robotic operating system and hardware base.
  • Cloud platform, including data storage, simulation, mapping of high definition (HD), and in-depth learning model training.

The algorithm subsystem extracts meaningful information from raw sensor data to understand their environment and decide their behavior. To satisfy real-time and reliability criteria, the client subsystem incorporates these algorithms. (For instance, if the sensor camera produces data at 60 Hz, the client subsystem needs to ensure that it takes less than 16 milliseconds (ms) to complete the longest stage of the processing pipeline.)

Algorithms Concerning Creating Autonomous Vehicle System

The algorithms’ component consists of: sensing and extracting meaningful information from raw sensor data; perception, localizing the vehicle and understanding the current environment; and decision-making to take measures to reach destinations efficiently and safely.


An autonomous vehicle usually consists of several significant sensors. Because each sensor poses advantages and disadvantages, it is essential to integrate the data from multiple sensors. The types of the sensor may include the following:

GPS/IMU: By reporting both inertial updates and a global location estimate at a high rate, e.g., 200 Hz, the GPS/IMU system lets the AV localize itself. Although GPS is a reasonably accurate localization sensor, its update rate is too slow to provide updates in real-time at only 10 Hz.

Landscape in creating Autonomous Vehicle System

Now, while an IMU’s accuracy deteriorates over time. Also it can therefore not rely on to provide accurate position updates over very long periods, it can provide updates at or above 200 Hz more regularly. This should fulfill the real-time requirement. We can provide reliable and real-time alerts for vehicle localization by integrating GPS and IMU.

LIDAR: For visualization, localization, and obstacle avoidance, LIDAR is used. This works to calculate the distance by bouncing a beam off surfaces and calculating the reflection time. It is used as the critical sensor in most AV implementations due to its high accuracy. It is possible to use LIDAR to create HD maps, locate a moving vehicle against HD maps, detect obstacles ahead, etc. Like the Velodyne 64-beam laser, a LIDAR unit usually rotates at 10 Hz and takes approximately 1.3 million readings per second. 

We apply a particle filter method to compare the LIDAR measurements with the map to localize a moving vehicle relative to these maps. To achieve real-time localization with 10-centimeter precision, the particle filter approach has been demonstrated and is successful in urban environments. However, LIDAR has its problem: the measurements can be extremely noisy when there are several suspended objects in the air, such as tiny raindrops or dust.

Creating Autonomous Vehicle System

Localization in Creating Autonomous Vehicle System

Although GPS/IMU can be used for localization, with a slow update rate, GPS provides reasonably accurate localization results; IMU provides a quick update with less accurate results. To combine the two’s benefits, we can use Kalman filtering and provide accurate and real-time location updates. Every 5 ms, the IMU propagates the vehicle’s location, but the error accumulates as time advances. Fortunately, we receive a GPS update every 100 ms, which helps us repair the IMU error. We can use GPS/IMU to produce fast and precise localization outcomes by running this propagation and update model.

Environment and AV

Radar and Sonar: These systems are used in obstacle avoidance for the last line of protection. The radar and sonar produced data shows the distance in front of the vehicle’s path from the nearest object. Autonomous cars should apply the brakes or turn to avoid the barrier. When we sense that an item is not far ahead and that there might be a collision chance. Therefore, the data generated by radar and sonar does not require much processing. It is typically feeding directly to the control processor. To enforce such urgent functions as swerving, applying the brakes, or pre-tensioning the seatbelts, not through the main computation pipeline.


Next, to understand the vehicle’s climate, we feed the sensor data to the perception subsystem. Localization, object recognition, and object tracking is the three primary tasks of autonomous driving perception.

Cameras: Cameras, such as lane detection, traffic light detection, pedestrian detection, and more, are mainly used for object recognition and object tracking tasks. Current implementations typically install eight or more cameras around the vehicle to increase AV protection to use cameras to identify, recognize, and track objects in front, behind, and on both sides of the car. These cameras typically run at 60 Hz and produce about 1.8 GB of raw data per second when combined.


Action prediction

When navigating through traffic, one of the main challenges for human drivers is coping with other drivers’ possible actions, which directly influence their driving strategy. This is particularly true when several lanes are on the road or at a point of change in traffic. To make sure that the AV in these environments travels safely. The decision unit generates nearby vehicle projections and then decides on an action plan based on these projections.

What is Overall Impact of Autonomous Vehicles?

A stochastic model of the other traffic participants’ reachable position, sets can be generated. That predict the actions of other vehicles, and these reachable sets can be associated with probability distributions.

Path planning

In a dynamic environment, planning the path of an autonomous, responsive vehicle is a complex problem, particularly when it is required to use its full maneuvering capabilities. One approach would be to search for all possible paths using deterministic, complete algorithms and use a cost function to identify the best course. This, however, requires enormous computer resources and may not be able to deliver navigation plans in real-time. Probabilistic planners have been used to circumvent this computational complexity and provide efficient real-time path planning.

Creating Autonomous Vehicle System
Path planning

Obstacle avoidance in Creating Autonomous Vehicle System

Since safety in autonomous driving is a primary concern. At least two levels of obstacle avoidance systems should be in use to ensure that the vehicle does not collide with obstacles. The first level is proactive and based on predictions of traffic.

Negitivity in Autonomous Vehicles Driving

The traffic prediction mechanism generates measures like time-to-collision or predicted-minimum-distance. The obstacle avoidance mechanism activates to conduct local-path re-planning based on these steps. The second-level reactive agent, using radar data, takes over if the proactive tool fails. Once the radar detects an obstacle ahead of the route, it overrides the current controls to avoid the block.